Johari Window

Objective: To show how communication occurs at two levels.

Time: about 30 Minutes


1. Read and discuss The Johari Window that is listed below.

2. Divide the class into small groups and have them discuss the questions.

3. Have each group list their findings on a flip chart.

4. When they are finished, rejoin them into one large group and have each group discuss their findings.

The Johari Window

In 1955, Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingram created a quadrant to reveal what we know or don't know about something and what others know or don't know about something. They called it the “Johari Window of Opportunity” (JOseph and HARrIngton).

They theorized that the communications process occurs at two levels:

When the two levels of the communication process are viewed from the perspectives of the communicator and the listener, it provides four panes into the window on how we give and receive information about ourselves and others:

Johari Window


  1. What pane can lead to confusion? Why?
  2. What pane is not really troublesome, however it can lead to the most opportunities for improvement? Why?
  3. What are some other reasons that people might hold back (Facade)?

Instructor Answer Guide

Question 1: Facade, as it may convey double meanings to others (confusion). i.e., you tell your team to make decisions while you are gone, but you usually turn the decisions around when you get back.

Question 2: The Unknown, as these can be thought of as windows of opportunity — better communication processes, brainstorming sessions, learning to trust others, etc. This is where we turn the unknown into the known.

Question 3: Lack of trust, we may have feelings we do not feel comfortable discussing with others until we get to know them real well, we do not want to hurt someone, etc.

Next Steps

This learning activity is for the chapter on Communication and Leadership

Return to the Leadership Training and Development Outline